Research on surrogacy


Centre for Family Research, Cambridge


The Centre for Family Research at Cambridge University has led the world in its research into long term outcomes of surrogacy. The Centre, headed by Professor Susan Golombok, has been conducting research into the psychological adjustment of surrogacy families and surrogates since 2000 and has published numerous studies of surrogacy families headed by different-sex and same-sex couples, with a study of single dads currently underway.

The Centre is conducting the only study in the world to be following up surrogacy-born children from birth to adulthood. These children are now young adults and the research team are due to revisit families in 2020.

Published research about surrogacy

Postdelivery adjustment of gestational carriers, intended parents, and their children, Jadva, V., Fertility and Sterility (in press)

Parents’ relationship with their surrogate in cross-border and domestic surrogacy arrangements: comparisons by sexual orientation and location, Jadva, V., Prosser, H., Gamble, N. & Imrie, S. (2019), Fertility and Sterility, Volume 111, Issue 3, 562 – 570

Cross-border and domestic surrogacy in the UK context: an exploration of practical and legal decision-making, Jadva, V., Prosser, H., & Gamble, N., (2018), Human Fertility, 1-12

The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates, Lamba, N., Jadva, V., Kadam, K., & Golombok, S. (2018), Human Reproduction, 33(4), 646-653

The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation, Zadeh, S., Illioi, E., Jadva, V. & Golombok, S. (2018), Human Reproduction, 33, No. 6, 1099-1106.

Gay fathers’ motivations for and feelings about surrogacy as a path to parenthood, Blake, L., Carone, N., Raffanello, E., Slutsky, J., Ehrhardt, A. A., & Golombok, S. (2017), Human Reproduction, 32(4), 860-867.

The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14, Ilioi, E., Blake, L., Jadva, V., Roman, G., & Golombok, S. (2017), Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 58(3), 315-324.

A longitudinal study of families formed through reproductive donation: Parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent adjustment at age 14, Golombok, S., Ilioi, E., Blake, L., Roman, G., & Jadva, V. (2017), Developmental psychology53(10), 1966.

Gay father surrogacy families: relationships with surrogates and egg donors and parental disclosure of children’s origins, Blake, L., Carone, N., Slutsky, J., Raffanello, E., Ehrhardt, A. A., & Golombok, S. (2016), Fertility and sterility, 106(6), 1503-1509.

Surrogate mothers 10 years on: A longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing and relationships with the parents and child, Jadva, V., Imrie, S. & Golombok, S. (2015), Human Reproduction, 30, No. 2, 373-379.

Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy, Jadva, V., & Imrie, S. (2013).. Human Reproduction, 29(1), 90-96.

Children born through reproductive donation: A longitudinal study of psychological adjustment, Golombok, S., Blake, L., Casey, P., Roman, G., & Jadva, V. (2013), Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(6), 653-660.

Surrogacy families ten years on: Relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children’s understanding of their surrogacy origins, Jadva, V., Casey, P., Blake, L. & Golombok, S. (2012), Human Reproduction, 27, 3008-3014.

The long-term psychological health of surrogate mothers and their families, Imrie, S., Jadva, V. & Golombok, S. (2012).. Fertility and Sterility, S46, 98.

Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7, Golombok, S., Casey, P., Readings, J., Blake, L., Marks, A. & Jadva, V. (2011), Developmental Psychology, 47, No. 6, 1579-1578.

Secrecy, openness and everything in between: Decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy, Readings, J., Blake, L., Casey, P. Jadva, V. & Golombok, S. (2011). Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 22(5), 485-495.

Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: consequences for parent–child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3, Golombok, S., Murray, C., Jadva, V., Lycett, E., MacCallum, F., & Rust, J. (2006). Human Reproduction, 21(7), 1918-1924.

Surrogacy families: Parental functioning, parent-child relationships and children’s psychological development at age 2, Golombok, S., MacCallum, F., Murray, C., Lycett, E. & Jadva, V. (2006). Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47, No 2, 213-222.

Families created through surrogacy arrangements: Parent-child relationships in the first year of life. Golombok, S., Murray, C., Jadva, V., MacCallum, F.& Lycett, E. (2004) Developmental Psychology, 40, 400-411.

Surrogacy: The experience of commissioning couples, MacCallum, F., Lycett, E., Murray, C., Jadva, V. & Golombok, S. (2003). Human Reproduction, 18, No 6, 1334-1342.

Current research projects


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From our Surrogacy Information area

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